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Paint Creek Lake

Huntington District
Published Jan. 10, 2024

The lake provides flood control (authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1938) for the communities along Paint Creek. In addition, it provides water supply for Highland Water Company, increases water flow downstream during low flow conditions, and provides recreational opportunities and wildlife habitat. The 6510-square-mile Scioto River basin is the principal drainage system of central Ohio, embracing all or part of 29 counties. It begins in eastern Auglaize County and joins the Ohio River at Portsmouth. In March 1913 the flood of record (to date) struck the Scioto and most of its tributaries. It took 145 lives including 93 people in Columbus and 18 in Chillicothe. It flooded 4,000 homes in Columbus and inundated 75% of Chillicothe. The record flood along Alum and Big Walnut creeks occurred in January 1959, and produced the second highest crests at Columbus and Chillicothe. Storage of floodwater behind Delaware Dam reduced the crest downstream from the dam. Congress authorized a new study of water-related problems in the Scioto basin and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1962, recommended a plan, which led to the construction of multi-purpose dams on Alum Creek, Deer Creek, and Paint Creek (the Corps completed Delaware Dam in 1951). The levee around part of Chillicothe was included in this plan. Through mid-1980 the four dams had reduced flood damages in the Scioto basin by $141 million. These benefits are gained by closing the dam gates when heavy storms develop, and storing excess runoff in the lakes. This prevents millions of gallons of water from running downstream and raising flood heights. Crest reductions are beneficial along the tributaries on which dams are located, the Scioto and Ohio rivers and, in some cases, the Mississippi River. During widespread flooding the projects are operated as an integrated system. Paint Creek dam is 37 stream miles above the confluence of Paint Creek and the Scioto at Chillicothe, and 100 miles above the junction of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers at Portsmouth. Congress authorized the project in the Flood Control Act of 1938 for flood reduction, recreation, potential water supply for Greenfield, water quality improvement, and fish - wildlife conservation. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began construction of the project in 1967 and completed the dam and recreation facility in 1974. The project, 20 miles west of Chillicothe in Ross and Highland counties, regulates runoff from 573 square miles - about 50% of Paint Creek basin’s drainage area. The Dam is composed of an impervious core (a wall of clay material extending across the center of the dam) contained both upstream and downstream by an embankment of rock. The dam is 118 feet high and 800 feet long. Water is discharged from the lake through a tunnel adjacent to the dam. A concrete tower structure at the upper end of the tunnel contains control gates. Water can be drawn from two different levels for downstream water quality and temperature control. A gated spillway, one-third mile south of the dam, provides an 'escape' route for excess water in the event the lake ever reaches its maximum level. This prevents the lake from overtopping the dam. In the spring, the lake is raised to elevation 798 (feet above sea level) which provides a surface area of 1190 acres for recreation. Streambed elevation at the dam is 750. At this level the lake extends 4 miles along Rattlesnake Creek to one-half mile above Rt. 753. It runs up Paint Creek one mile above the Paint-Rattlesnake confluence. During the fall and winter, the lake is lowered to elevation 787.50 to provide additional space for storing floodwater. Its highest possible elevation is 845, at which point the gates are opened to permit water to flow through the spillway. At maximum storage elevation the lake extends past Greenfield and Centerfield. 

Historical Info
The Paint Creek Lake area offers several points of interest within a short drive. Visitors can enjoy geographical features created by glacial activity, Native American cultural areas, and other cultural points of interest. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, and Rocky Fork Lake. Glaciers destroyed the Teays River and created the Ohio River. The Ice Age began 1,000,000 years ago and ended 10,000 years ago. In central Ohio, the ice sheet crept to Chillicothe where it blocked the mightiest prehistoric river in North America-the Teays. A thousand miles long, the Teays headed in North Carolina and flowed through Virginia to the present site of Portsmouth. There it swerved northward to Chillicothe, then westward across Indiana to the present Illinois River valley, then south to the Gulf of Mexico just below St. Louis. Blocked by the ice, the Teays formed a 200-mile lake extending back to New River Gorge, 40 miles east of Charleston, WV. It covered the present sites of Portsmouth, Ashland, KY, Huntington and Charleston. The Ohio River developed from glacial drainage. The original path of the Teays today is followed by the New and Kanawha rivers from North Carolina to Nitro, WV, and by the Ohio from Huntington to Portsmouth. In addition to its unique geologic setting between the glaciated plain and Appalachian Plateau, the lake lies in the midst of prehistoric Native American village sites and mound building activity. Nearby evidence indicates the former presence of the Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Adena, Hopewell, and Fort Ancient cultures. Seip Mound is adjacent to U.S. 50 between Bainbridge and Bourneville. The Hopewell Culture National Historical Park is on Route 104 just north of Chillicothe, Ohio's first capital. In modern times, the area was common ground for the Native American Tah-gah-jute and later named Logan, and Tecumseh whose dream of an Indian confederacy is told in the outdoor drama at Chillicothe. The limestone and dolomite formations are highlighted at the nearby Highland Nature Sanctuary, formerly called Seven Caves, which are an Ohio Natural Landmark. As a non-profit organization, admission is by voluntary donation.  

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