Linde Site

Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

Buffalo District
Published Dec. 8, 2023
Updated: Dec. 8, 2023

From 1942 to 1946, the former Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide processed uranium ores at its ceramics plant in Tonawanda, New York, under contract to the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). In 1953, the Linde facilities were cleaned to within radioactive guidelines in effect at that time. All of the structures used in processing have since been converted to other commercial and industrial uses.

Project Status

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers finalized the Site Closeout Report for the Linde FUSRAP Site on March 30, 2015. The report documents the implemented removal and remedial activities conducted at the Linde Site between 1997 and 2013, which resulted in nearly 400,000 tons of contaminated material being excavated and shipped out of state for disposal.

No further response is needed to protect human health and the environment from the FUSRAP-eligible constituents of concern at the Linde FUSRAP Site. All remedial action goals have been achieved, and all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) have been met for the site. Since FUSRAP-eligible residual radiological concentrations remaining at the Linde Site allow for unlimited use and unrestricted exposure, no five-year reviews, land-use controls, or operations and maintenance are required to maintain the protectiveness of the implemented remedies.

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management assumed responsibility for the Linde FUSRAP Site on March 30, 2017, for long-term stewardship such as records management and responding to stakeholder inquiries.

A summary of each removal, remedial component, and operable unit completed is provided below.

Building 38

An action memorandum for the demolition of Building 38 was issued in January 1996. The remedy for this non-time-critical removal action involved the demolition of Building 38, decontamination of Buildings 14 and 31, and complete excavation of contaminated soil next to Building 90 with off-site transportation, and disposal of the materials at an appropriately permitted or licensed disposal facility. The demolition of Building 38 was completed by the United States Department of Energy in December 1997.

Building 30

The Corps of Engineers issued an action memorandum for the demolition of Building 30 in February 1998. The remedy for this non-time-critical removal action involved the demolition of Building 30, off-site transportation, and disposal at appropriately permitted or licensed disposal facilities. The demolition and disposal of Building 30 was completed in September 1998.

Soils Operable Unit

The record of decision (ROD) for the Soils Operable Unit (OU) was signed in March 2000, which authorized remediation of residual radioactive material and removal of buildings and slabs (with the exception of Building 14). Remedial action and restoration were completed in May 2013. In accordance with the 2000 ROD for the Soils OU, the Corps of Engineers safely removed and disposed of nearly 370,000 tons contaminated materials at legally permitted disposal facilities outside of New York State.

Building 14 Operable Unit

The Record of Decision for the Building 14 Operable Unit was signed in April 2003, which authorized removal of Building 14 and contaminated material beneath the building. Remedial action and restoration were completed in May 2005. This action resulted in over 14,000 tons of debris material being shipped to a legally permitted disposal facility outside of New York State.

Groundwater Operable Unit

The Corps of Engineers completed a feasibility study addendum for site groundwater in October 2005, which concluded that there are no complete exposure pathways to groundwater. Therefore, radiological constituents in the groundwater pose no current or future threat to human health or the environment, and further Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action is not warranted. The record of decision for the Groundwater OU was signed in January 2007, and documents no action as the selected remedy for groundwater at the Linde Site. This no action remedy also allowed for unrestricted use and unlimited exposure conditions, since naturally occurring concentrations of constituents in groundwater underlying the Linde Site preclude its use without treatment and the treatment to remove the naturally occurring constituents would also remove any of the FUSRAP-eligible constituents that may be present.

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